George Vande Woude, Ph.D.

We are deeply saddened by the passing of VAI Founding Research Director Dr. George Vande Woude. To learn more about Dr. Vande Woude’s outstanding contributions to cancer research and the scientific community, please read our tribute here.
George Vande Woude, Ph.D.
Distinguished Scientific Fellow, Emeritus


Dr. Vande Woude received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Rutgers University. In 1972, he joined the National Cancer Institute as head of the Human Tumor Studies and Virus Tumor Biochemistry sections. In 1983, he became director of the Advanced Bioscience Laboratories–Basic Research Program at the Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, a position he held until 1998. From 1995, Dr. Vande Woude first served as special advisor to the director, and then as director, of the Division of Basic Sciences at NCI. In 1999, he was recruited as the founding research director of Van Andel Institute. In 2009, Dr. Vande Woude stepped down as Director while retaining his leadership of the Laboratory of Molecular Oncology as a Distinguished Scientific Fellow and Professor. He is now a Distinguished Scientific Fellow, Emeritus. Dr. Vande Woude is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1993) and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2013).  

Research Focus

MET is overexpressed in many types of human cancer, and its expression correlates with aggressive disease and poor prognosis (visit vari.vai.org/met/). Since discovering the MET receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/SF), in the mid-1980s, the Vande Woude Laboratory has focused on investigating the paramount role these molecules play in malignant progression and metastasis. In an effort to further understanding of this signaling system, the lab investigated the mechanisms responsible for tumor progression under the hypothesis that phenotypic switching and chromosome instability can drive tumor progression. In addition, they developed and characterized novel animal research models that are used in preclinical evaluation of new inhibitors that target MET in a variety of human cancers.


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Tumor phenotypic switching: Mechanism and therapeutic implications

In human carcinomas, the acquisition of an invasive phenotype requires a breakdown of intercellular junctions with neighboring cells, a process termed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (E-MT). Upon arriving at secondary sites, the mesenchymal cells revert to an epithelial phenotype via a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (M-ET). Human carcinoma tissues and cells typically show extensive heterogeneity in both phenotype and genotype, suggesting a role for genetic instability in cell type determination. To test this possibility, the Vande Woude Laboratory developed methods to continually isolate phenotypic variants from epithelial or mesenchymal subclones of carcinoma cell lines. They explored the signaling pathway underlying E-MT/M-ET phenotypic switching by gene expression analysis, spectral karyotyping (SKY), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). They found that changes in chromosome content are associated with phenotypic switching. They further showed that these changes dictated the expression of specific genes, which in E-MT events are mesenchymal and in M-ET events are epithelial. Their results suggest that chromosome instability can provide the diversity of gene expression needed for tumor cells to switch phenotype.

In vivo research models: Model development and preclinical treatment evaluation

Anti-cancer therapy based on blocking the HGF-Met signaling pathway has emerged as an important goal of pharmaceutical research. One of the limitations of studying the altered Met HGF/SF signaling of human cancers grafted in mouse models has been that the murine HGF/SF protein has a low affinity for human MET. To overcome this, the Vande Woude Laboratory developed the transgenic human HGF-SCID mouse model (hHGFtg-SCID), which generates a human-compatible HGF/SF protein and thus allows for the propagation of human tumors. This model has proven to be a valuable preclinical tool for in vivo study of MET-dependent cancers and is used to evaluate treatment strategies that aim to target this pathway.

Selected publications:

Gao CF, Su Y, Koeman J, Haak E, Dykema K, Essenburg C, Hudson E, Petillo D, Khoo SK, Vande Woude GF. 2016. Chromosome instability drives phenotypic switching to metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113(51):14793-14798.    PubMed      Article

Johnson J, Ascierto ML, Mittal S, Newsome D, Kang L, Briggs M, Tanner K, Marincola FM, Berens ME, Vande Woude GF, Xie Q. 2015. Genomic profiling of a hepatocyte growth factor-dependent signature for MET-targeted therapy in glioblastoma. J Transl Med 13(1):306.    PubMed

Graveel CR, Tolbert D, Vande Woude GF. 2013. MET: a critical player in tumorigenesis and therapeutic target. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5(7): a009209.   PubMed

Paulson AK, Linklater ES, Berghuis BD, App CA, Oostendorp LD, Paulson JE, Pettinga JE, Melnik MK, Vande Woude GF, Graveel CR. 2013. MET and ERBB2 are coexpressed in ERBB2+ breast cancer and contribute to innate resistance. Mol Cancer Res 11(9):1112–1121.    PubMed

Xie Q, Su Y, Dykema K, Johnson J, Koeman J, De Giorgi V, Huang A, Schlegel R, Essenburg C, Kang L, Iwaya D, Seki S, Khoo SK, Zhang B, Buonaguro F, Marincola FM, Furge K, Vande Woude GF, Shinomiya N. 2013. Overexpression of HGF promotes HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma progression and is an effective indicator for Met-targeting therapy. Genes Cancer 4(7-8):247–260.    PubMed

Zhang YW, Staal B, Essenburg C, Lewis S, Kaufman D, Vande Woude GF. 2013. Strengthening context-dependent anticancer effects on non–small cell lung carcinoma by inhibition of both MET and EGFR. Mol Cancer Ther 12(8):1429–1441.   PubMed

Zhang YW, Vande Woude GF. 2013. MIG-6 and SPRY2 in the regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signalig: balancing act via negative feedback loops. In Future Aspects of Tumor Suppressor Genes, Yue Chang, ed. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, pp. 199–221.    PubMed

Gherardi E, Birchmeier W, Birchmeier C, Vande Woude GF. 2012. Targeting MET in cancer: rationale and progress. Nat Rev Cancer 12(2):89–103.    PubMed

Kentsis A, Reed C, Rice KL, Sanda T, Rodig SJ, Tholouli E, Christie A, Valk PJM, Delwel R, Ngo V, Kutok JL, Dahlberg SE, Moreau LA, Byers RJ, Christensen JG, Vande Woude GF, Licht JD, Kung AL, Staudt LM, Look AT. 2012. Autocrine activation of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase in acute myeloid leukemia. Nat Med 18(7):1118–1122.    PubMed

Zhang YW, Staal B, Dykema KJ, Furge KA, Vande Woude GF. 2012. Cancer-type regulation of MIG-6 expression by inhibitors of methylation and histone deacetylation. PLoS One 7(6): e38955.    PubMed

Scott KL, Nogueira C, Heffernan TP, van Doorn R, Dhakal S, Hanna JA, Min C, Jaskelioff M, Xiao Y, Wu CJ, Cameron LA, Perry SR, Zeid R, Feinberg T, Kim M, Vande Woude GF, Granter SR, Bosenberg M, Chu GC, DePinho RA, Rimm DL, Chin L. 2011. Proinvasion metastasis drivers in early-stage melanoma are oncogenes. Cancer Cell 20(1): 92–103.    PubMed

Xie Q, Bradley R, Kang L, Koeman J, Ascierto ML, Worschech A, De Giorgi V, Want E, Kefene L, Su Y, Essenburg C, Kaufman DW, DeKoning T, Enter MA, O’Rourke TJ, Marincola FM, Vande Woude GF. 2011. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) autocrine activation predicts sensitivity to MET inhibition in glioblastoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(2): 570–575.    PubMed

Xie Q, Wondergem R, Shen Y, Cavey G, Ke J, Thompson R, Bradley R, Daugherty-Holtrop J, Xu Y, Chen E, Omar H, Rosen N, Wenkert D, Xu HE, Vande Woude GF. 2011. Benzoquinone ansamycin 17AAG binds to mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel and inhibit cell invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(10): 4105–4110.    PubMed

Graveel CR, DeGroot JD, Sigler RE, Vande Woude GF. 2010. Germline met mutations in mice reveal mutation- and background-associated differences in tumor profiles. PLoS One 5(10): e13586.          PubMed

Kanai M, Crowe MS, Zhang Y, Vande Woude GF, Fukasawa K. 2010. RhoA and RhoC are both required for the ROCK II-dependent promotion of centrosome duplication. Oncogene 29(45): 6040–6050.    PubMed

Melnik MK, Webb CP, Richardson PJ, Luttenton CR, Campbell AD, Monroe TJ, O’Rourke TJ, Yost KJ, Szczepanek CM, Bassett MR, Truszkowski KJ, Stein P, VanBrocklin MW, Davis AT, Bedolla G, Vande Woude GF, Koo HM. 2010. Phase II trial to evaluate gemcitabine and etoposide for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer Ther 9(8): 2423–2429.    PubMed

Paneth N, Vande Woude GF, Kort E. 2010. Screening and detection of breast cancer and prostate cancer. J Am Med Assoc 303(11): 1032–1033.

Tolbert DW, Daugherty-Holtrop J, Gherardi E, Vande Woude GF, Xu HE. 2010. Structural basis for agonism and antagonism of hepatocyte growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(30): 13264–13269.    PubMed

Zhang YW, Staal B, Essenburg C, Su Y, Kang L, West R, Kaufman DW, DeKoning T, Eagleson B, Buchanan SG, Vande Woude GF. 2010. MET kinase inhibitor SGX523 synergizes with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib in a hepatocyte growth factor-dependent fashion to suppress carcinoma growth. Cancer Res 70(17): 6880–6890.    PubMed

Eder JP, Vande Woude GF, Boerner SA, LoRusso PM. 2009. Novel therapeutic inhibitors of the c-MET signaling pathway in cancer. Clin Cancer Res 15(7): 2207–2214.    PubMed        Article

Gao CF, Xie Q, Zhang YW, Su Y, Zhao P, Cao B, Furge K, Sun J, Rex K, Osgood T, Coxon A, Burgess TL, Vande Woude GF. 2009. Therapeutic potential of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor neutralizing antibodies: inhibition of tumor growth in both autocrine and paracrine hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor:c-Met–driven models of leiomyosarcoma. Mol Cancer Ther  8(10): 2803–2810.    PubMed        Article

Graveel CR, DeGroot JD, Su Y, Koeman JM, Dykema K, Leung S, Snider J, Davies SR, Swiatek PJ, Cottingham S, Watson MA, Ellis MJ, Sigler RE. Furge KA, Vande Woude GR. 2009. Met induces diverse breast carcinomas in mice and is associated with human basal breast cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(31): 12909–12914.    Article

Jeong JW, Lee HS, Lee KY, White LD, Broaddus RR, Zhang YW,  Vande Woude GF, Giudice LC, Young SL, Lessey BA, Tsai SY, Lydon JP, DeMayo FJ. 2009. Mig-6 modulates uterine steroid hormone responsiveness and exhibits altered expression in endometrial disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(21): 8677–8682.    PubMed       Article

Knudsen BS, Zhao P, Resau J, Cottingham S, Gherardi E, Xu HE, Berghuis B, Daugherty J, Grabinski T, Toro J, Giambernardi T, Skinner RS, Gross M, Hudson E, Kort E, Lengyel E, Ventura A, West RA, Xie W, Hay R,  Vande Woude GR, Cao B. 2009. A novel multipurpose monoclonal antibody for evaluating human c-Met expression in preclinical and clinical settings. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 17(1): 57–67.    PubMed

Kort EJ, Paneth N, Vande Woude GF. 2009. The decline in U.S. cancer mortality in people born since 1925. Cancer Res 69(16): 6500–6505.    PubMed      Article

VanBrocklin MW, Robinson JP, Whitwam T, Guibeault AR, Koeman J, Swiatek PJ,  Vande Woude GF, Khoury JD, Holmen SL. 2009. Met amplification and tumor progression in Cdkn2a-deficient melanocytes. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 22(4): 454–460.    PubMed

Furge K, Vande Woude GF. 2008. Met. In Encyclopedic Reference of Cancer, 2nd edition, M. Schwab, ed. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag.    PubMed      Article

Knudsen BS, Vande Woude GF. 2008. Showering c-Met dependent cancers with drugs. Curr Opin Genet Dev 18(1): 87–96.    PubMed         

Rouleau C, Menon K, Boutin P, Guyre C, Yoshida H, Kataoka S, Perricone M, Shankara S, Frankel AE, Duesbery NS,  Vande Woude GF, Biemann HP, Teicher HP. 2008. The systemic administration of lethal toxin achieves a growth delay of human melanoma and neuroblastoma xenografts: assessment of receptor contribution. Inter J Oncol 32(4): 739–748.     PubMed       Article

Xie Q, Thompson R, Hardy K, DeCamp L, Berghuis B, Sigler R, Knudsen B, Cottingham S, Zhao P, Dykema K, Cao B, Resau J, Hay R, Vande Woude GF. 2008. A highly invasive human glioblastoma pre-clinical model for testing therapeutics. J Transl Med 6: 77.    PubMed       Article

Zhang YW, Vande Woude GF. 2008. Mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) in cancer. In Encyclopedic Reference of Cancer, 2nd edition, M. Schwab, ed. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Gao CF, Furge K, Koeman J, Dykema K, Su Y, Cutler ML, Werts A, Haak P, Vande Woude GF. 2007. Chromosome instability, chromosome transcriptome, and clonal evolution of tumor cell populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(21): 8995–9000.    PubMed      Article

Lindemann K, Resau J, Nährig J, Kort E, Leeser B, Anneke K, Welk A, Schäfer J, Vande Woude GF, Lengyel E, Harbeck N. 2007. Differential expression of c-Met, its ligand HGF/SF and HER2/neu in DCIS and adjacent normal breast tissue. Histopathology 51(1): 54–62.    PubMed       Article

Sawada K, Radjabi AR, Shinomiya N, Kistner E, Kenny H, Becker AR, Turkyilmaz MA, Salgia R, Yamada SD,  Vande Woude GF, Tretiakova MS, Ernst Lengyel. 2007. c-Met overexpression is a prognostic factor in ovarian cancer and an effective target for inhibition of peritoneal dissemination and invasion. Cancer Res 67(4): 1670–1679.    PubMed

Tolbert DW, Daugherty J, Gao CF, Xie Q, Miranti C, Gherardi E, Vande Woude GF, Xu HE. 2007. A mechanistic basis for converting a receptor tyrosine kinase agonist to an antagonist. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(37): 14592–14597.    PubMed     Article

Zhang YW, Staal B, Su Y, Swiatek P, Zhao P, Cao B, Resau J, Sigler R, Bronson R, Vande Woude GF. 2007. Evidence that MIG-6 is a tumor-suppressor gene. Oncogene 26(2): 269–276.     PubMed

Zhang YW, Vande Woude GF. 2007. Mig-6, signal transduction, stress response and cancer. Cell Cycle 6(5): 507–513.    PubMed       Article

Zhao P, Grabinski T, Gao CF, Skinner RS, Giambernardi T, Su Y, Hudson E, Resau J, Gross M, Vande Woude GF, Hay R, Cao B. 2007. Identification of a Met-binding peptide from a phage display library. Clin Cancer Res13(20): 6049–6055.    PubMed        Article

Duesbery N, Vande Woude GF. 2006. BRAF and MEK mutations make a late entrance. Science’s STKE 328: pe15.    PubMed       Article

Gherardi E, Sandin S, Petoukhov MV, Finch J, Youles ME, Öfverstedt LG, Miguel RN, Blundell TL, Vande Woude GF, Skoglund U, Svergun DI. 2006. Structural basis of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and MET signalling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (11): 4046–4051.    PubMed

Lee JH, Gao CF, Lee CC, Kim MD,  Vande Woude GF. 2006. An alternatively spliced form of Met receptor is tumorigenic. Exp Mol Med 38(5): 565–573.    PubMed

Moshitch-Moshkovitz S, Tsarfaty G, Kaufman DW, Stein GY, Shichrur K, Solomon E, Sigler RH, Resau JH,  Vande Woude GF, Tsarfaty I. 2006. In vivodirect molecular imaging of early tumorigenesis and malignant progression induced by transgenic expression of GFP-Met. Neoplasia 8(5): 353–363.    PubMed       Article

Tsarfaty G, Stein GY, Moshitch-Moshkovitz S, Kaufman DW, Cao B, Resau JH,  Vande Woude GF, Tsarfaty I. 2006. HGF/SF increases tumor blood volume: a novel tool for the in vivo functional molecular imaging of Met. Neoplasia 8(5): 344–352.    PubMed        Article

Gao CF, Vande Woude GF. 2005. HGF/SF-Met signaling in tumor progression. Cell Res15(1): 49–51.  PubMed

Gao CF, Xie Q, Su Y, Koeman J, Khoo SK, Gustafson M, Knudsen BS, Hay R, Shinomiya N, Vande Woude GF. 2005. Proliferation and invasion: plasticity in tumor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(30): 10528–10533.    PubMed        Article

Graveel CR, London CA, Vande Woude GF. 2005. A mouse model of activating Met mutations. Cell Cycle 4(4): 518–520.    PubMed        Article

Hay RV, Cao B, Skinner R, Su Y, Zhao P, Gustafson MF, Qian CN, Teh BT, Knudsen BS, Resau JH, Shen S, Waters DJ, Gross MD, Vande Woude GF. 2005. Nuclear imaging of Met-expressing human and canine cancer xenografts with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MetSeek™). Clin Cancer Res11(19(Suppl.)): 7064s–7069s.    PubMed       Article

Lengyel E, Prechtel D, Resau JH, Gauger K, Welk A, Lindemann K, Salanti G, Richter T, Knudsen BS,  Vande Woude GF, Harbeck N. 2005. c-Met overexpression in node-positive breast cancer identifies patients with poor clinical outcome independent of Her2/neu. Intl J Cancer 113(4): 678–682.        PubMed

Zhang YW, Su Y, Lanning N, Gustafson M, Shinomiya N, Zhao P, Cao B, Tsarfaty G, Wang LM, Hay R, Vande Woude GF. 2005. Enhanced growth of human Met-expressing xenografts in a new strain of immunocompromised mice transgenic for human hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. Oncogene 24(1): 101–106.    PubMed

Zhang YW, Su Y, Lanning N, Swiatek PJ, Bronson RT, Sigler R, Martin RW, Vande Woude GF. 2005. Targeted disruption of Mig-6 in the mouse genome leads to early onset degenerative joint disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(33): 11740–11745.    PubMed        Article

Fan J, Tam P, Vande Woude GF, Ren Y. 2004. Normalization and analysis of cDNA microarrays using within-array replications applied to neuroblastoma cell response to a cytokine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(5): 1135–1140.    PubMed

Graveel C, Su Y, Koeman J, Wang LM, Tessarollo L, Fiscella M, Birchmeier C, Swiatek P, Bronson R, Vande Woude GF. 2004. Activating Met mutations produce unique tumor profiles in mice with selective duplication of the mutant allele. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(49): 17198–17203.    PubMed

Lee CC, Putnam AJ, Miranti CK, Gustafson M, Wang LM,  Vande Woude GF, Gao CF. 2004. Overexpression of sprouty 2 inhibits HGF/SF-mediated cell growth, invasion, migration, and cytokinesis. Oncogene 23(30): 5193–5202.    PubMed

Shinomiya N, Gao CF, Xie Q, Gustafson M, Waters DJ, Zhang YW, Vande Woude GF. 2004. RNA interference reveals that ligand-independent Met activity is required for tumor cell signaling and survival. Cancer Res 64(21): 7962–7970.    PubMed

Vande Woude GF, Kelloff GJ, Ruddon RW, Koo HM, Sigman CC, Barrett JC, Day RW, Dicker AP, Kerbel RS, Parkinson DR, Slichenmyer WJ. 2004. Reanalysis of cancer drugs: old drugs, new tricks. Clin Cancer Res 10(11): 3897–3907.    PubMed

Zhang YW, Graveel C, Shinomiya N, Vande Woude GF. 2004. Met decoys: will cancer take the bait? Cancer Cell 6(1): 5–6.    PubMed

Birchmeier C, Birchmeier W, Gherardi E, Vande Woude GF. 2003. Met, metastasis, motility, and more. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4(12): 915–925.    PubMed

Frankel AE, Koo HM, Leppla SH, Duesbery NS, Vande Woude GF. 2003. Novel protein-targeted therapy of metastatic melanoma. Curr Pharma Des 9(25): 2060–2066.    PubMed

Hammond DE, Carter S, McCullough J, Urbé S, Vande Woude GF, Clague MJ. 2003. Endosomal dynamics of Met determine signaling output. Mol Biol Cell 14(4): 1346–1354.    PubMed

Shinomiya N, Vande Woude GF. 2003. Suppression of Met expression: a possible cancer treatment [commentary]. Clin Cancer Res 9(14): 5085–5090.    PubMed

You X, Yu HM, Cohen-Gould L, Cao B, Symons M, Vande Woude GF, Knudsen BS. 2003. Regulation of migration of primary prostate epithelial cells by secreted factors from prostate stromal cells. Exp Cell Res 288(2): 246–256.    PubMed

Zhang YW, Su Y, Volpert OV, Vande Woude GF. 2003. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor mediates angiogenesis through positive VEGF and negative thrombospondin 1 regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100(22): 12718–12723.    PubMed

Zhang YW, Vande Woude GF. 2003. HGF/SF-met signaling in the control of branching morphogenesis and invasion. J Cell Biochem 88(2): 408–417.    PubMed

Duesbery NS, Vande Woude GF. 2002. An arresting activity [News & Views]. Nature 416(6883): 804–805.    PubMed

Frankel AE, Powell BL, Duesbery NS, Vande Woude GF, Leppla SH. 2002. Anthrax fusion protein therapy of cancer. Curr Protein Pept Sci 3(4): 399–407.    PubMed

Knudsen BS, Gmyrek GA, Inra J, Scherr DS, Vaughan ED, Nanus DM, Kattan MW, Gerald WL, Vande Woude GF. 2002. High expression of the Met receptor in prostate cancer metastasis to bone. Urology 60(6): 1113–1117.    PubMed

Koo HM, Duesbery NS, Vande Woude GF. 2002. Anthrax toxins, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and melanoma treatment. Directions in Science 1: 123–126.

Koo HM, VanBrocklin M, McWilliams MJ, Leppla SH, Duesbery NS, Vande Woude GF. 2002. Apoptosis and melanogenesis in human melanoma cells induced by anthrax lethal factor inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(5): 3052–3057.     PubMed

Webb CP, Vande Woude GF. 2002. Met gene. In Wiley Encyclopedia of Molecular Medicine, Haig H. Kazazian, Jr., ed. Vol. 3. New York: Wiley, pp. 2049–2051.

Zhang YW, Wang LM, Jove R, Vande Woude GF. 2002. Requirement of Stat3 signaling for HGF/SF-Met mediated tumorigenesis. Oncogene 21(2): 217–226.    PubMed

Cao B, Su Y, Oskarsson M, Zhao P, Kort EJ, Fisher RJ, Wang LM, Vande Woude GF. 2001. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) display antitumor activity in animal models. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(13): 7443–7448.    PubMed

Duesbery NS, Resau J, Webb CP, Koochekpour S, Koo HM, Leppla SH, Vande Woude GF. 2001. Suppression of ras-mediated transformation and inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis by anthrax lethal factor, a proteolytic inhibitor of multiple MEK pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S  A 98(7): 4089–4094.    Article

Furge K, Vande Woude GF. 2001. Met. In Encyclopedic Reference of Cancer, M. Schwab, ed. Berlin: Springer Verlag, pp. 550–553.

Hammond DE, Urbé S,  Vande Woude GF, Clague MJ. 2001. Down-regulation of Met, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor. Oncogene 20(22): 2761–2770.    PubMed

Xiao GH, Jeffers M, Bellacosa A, Mitsuuchi Y, Vande Woude GF, Testa JR. 2001. Anti-apoptotic signaling by hepatocyte growth factor/Met via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  98(1): 247–252.    PubMed

Furge KA, Zhang YW, Vande Woude GF. 2000. Met receptor tyrosine kinase: enhanced signaling through adapter proteins. Oncogene 19(49): 5582–5589.    PubMed

Lee JH, Han SU, Cho H, Jennings B, Gerrard B, Dean M, Schmidt L, Zbar B, Vande Woude GF. 2000. A novel germ line juxtamembrane Met mutation in human gastric cancer. Oncogene 19(43): 4947–4953.    PubMed

Vousden KH, Vande Woude GF. 2000. The ins and outs of p53 [News & Views]. Nature Cell Biology 2(10): E178–E180.    Article

Webb CP, Vande Woude GF. 2000. Genes that regulate metastasis and angiogenesis. J Neuro-Oncol 50(1–2): 71–87.     Article

Duesbery NS, Webb CP, Vande Woude GF. 1999. MEK wars, a new front in the battle against cancer [News & Views]. Nat Med 5(7): 736–737.    PubMed